Forgotten AIMs

By Clare McCullough

Wounded knee was the site the massacre of 150 Sioux, half of which were women and children. 1890 marked the end of organized American Indian resistance to white rule. (NYT). Although the United States prided itself on its new independence, with many “triumphant” stories of its creation. Truth was, we were colonizing an already inhabited continent with many different nations. The United States, with such high albeit hypocritical, its ideals were bound to catch up with itself, and with a flux of the cold war winds; the 1960s and 70s were a time characterized by protest and national unrest.

The sovereign rights of Native Americans as a colonized people have been seldom guaranteed. After being subject to the Trail of Tears and other events that resulted in the countless attempts to assimilate the remaining tribal reservations; Native people were granted U.S citizenship in 1924. The Wheeler-Howard Act (Indian New Deal) was passed during the Great Depression. It granted a greater deal of tribal autonomy and self-government, however as the war began the government reverted to its policy of assimilation. (Koltowski) Assimilation has been the precedent for Indian-American Relations since the beginning, but unlike African American civil rights groups in the late 20th century that was not the Native’s goal. Most Native American tribes wanted to keep the reservations and their tribal land even though they were getting assistance from the government.

Regardless, an effort was made by the government to depopulate reservations and assimilate Native Americans into the United States. One-way bus fare and a promise of assistance in finding work and housing in cities were promised to reservation Indians who participated in the Relocation program of 1952. By 1980 more than half lived in urban areas. (Langston)

The 1953 Termination Act (House concurrent Resolution 108) was passed, which promulgated under a Congress that saw Native Americans as wards of the state. They were not granted the freedom of movement, contrary to the traditional visitation from tribe to tribe. Tribes were divided into categories of immediate or eventual termination. (Langston) They would lose all privileges related to treaties with the federal government, meaning that their tribal lands would be open for sale. (Koltowski) The Paiute tribe of Utah were terminated in ’54 and were not restored until 1980. Tribes were refused permits for hospitals and schools” because it would make the reservation more tenable for living. (Langston) Reservations suffer not only the highest poverty rates but also the highest unemployment and disease rates.

The Native American civil rights group NCAI was founded in 1944 (Langston). They focused mostly on issues affecting Reservations and campaigned for American Indian suffrage in states that prohibited the Indian vote. (Langston) The NCAI worked toward the 1965 Indian Self-Determination and Education act, the 1968 Indian Civil Rights Act, the 1972 Indian Education Act, the 1975 Indian Education Assistance and Self-Determination act, the 1978 Indian Child Welfare Act, and the 1978 Religious Freedom Act.

Two mainstream thoughts emerged. Some wanted to free Indians from reservations and the BIA’s special benefits, while the other despised the BIA as a symbol of Anglo-wardship. (Koltowski) There were the rise of both civil rights groups and power groups. According to Langston, Civil rights groups like the NCAI are different than power groups because “civil rights groups most often focused on lobbying, education, and creating legal change.” But, “Power groups responded to the limits of civil rights groups with more radical rhetoric and actions.” The American Indian Movement or AIM was a red power group started with an inspiration from the Black Panther party. They both began as a force meant to protect against violence in their areas. (NYT) AIM, in the same vein, would wear red jackets to patrol the twin cities and monitor police harassment (Langston)

The American Indian Movement’s start in July 1968 was right after the passage of the Indian Civil Rights Act and the start of self-determination policies by LBJ. It was a crucial part of the Red Power Movement in the 60s and 70s.  The group was co-founded by Mary Jane Wilson (Anishinabe) Clyde Bellecourt (Anishinabe) and Dennis Banks (Anisinabe) in Minneapolis. The mostly Anishinabe AIM had different goals than most other minority groups in America.

For the American Indian Movement, “self-determination meant using direct action to promote cultural awareness for all Indians, not new legislation to enhance tribal authority.” (Langston) AIM encouraged independence from white values and reeducation of the tribe of its traditional culture, not integration.  Nixon was quoted in 1960s after disavowing the termination policy, “the overriding aim, as I see it, should not be to separate the Indians from the richness of their past or force them into some preconceived mold of human behavior.” (Koltowski)

The Bureau of Indian Affairs was no friend to the Native American according to AIM. They participated in the 1972 “Trail of Broken Treaties” which was a caravan of eight groups of Native Americans to Washington to present a list of twenty grievances. Madonna Gilbert/Thunderhawk and Russel Means “collected documents from BIA files and left the occupation with 1.5 tons of documents that would reveal wide-spread practice of sterilization abuse among others.” (Langston) But after a week of protesting for housing, review of treaties, religious freedom, restoration of Indian lands, and increased funds for education and health care, they were paid 66,000 dollars for transport back home. (Koltowski) But before this civil disobedience, there were many other attempts at gaining attention from the mainstream media to bring Indigenous rights to the forefront of conversation.

Alcatraz has long been a symbol of impenetrability. It’s a small island in San Francisco Bay California. It came under US control in 1850 and was soon turned into a prison and housed the most notorious criminals. (Columbia) From 1969 to 1971 AIM along with other Indigenous groups occupied the island. At the end of the occupation, Federal marshals removed the 15 people who were left from the more than 100 people who had made their temporary home on the island. (Kotlowski) It became a national recreation area a year later. (Columbia)

Alcatraz galvanized Indian pride and consciousness and heralded a new era in American Indian activism. Nov 1969-june 1971. Belca Cottier (1964) was the first occupation of four hours. Group offered 47 cents an acre for the total of 9.40 for the island and drove claim stakes into the ground to mimic Lewis and Clark. Fort Laramie Treaty ((http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/sio0594.htm)  gave Indians the right to claim abandoned federal property, but it has proven to be an unsuccessful strategy in court. (Langston)

Alcatraz was success in that there was more attention brought to indigenous peoples in the United States. The currents of justice seemed to be flowing in the right direction. Tao Pueblo’s claim to Blue Lake in New Mexico was recognized and Alaskan Natives Claims Settlement Act of 1971 transferred 40 million acres and a billion dollars to Alaskan Aboriginals (Kotlowski) However, success stories after Alcatraz were wrought with conflicts.

In 1972, AIM responded to the murder of Raymond Yellow Thunder (Lakota) because murders and sexual assaults of Indians in border towns when committed by whites were seldom prosecuted. His family was unable to get tribal attorneys or the BIA to investigate his death. AIM demanded another autopsy which found that the cause of death was not exposure but a brain hemorrhage from being beaten to death (Langston) They were unsuccessful in giving the Yellow Thunder family closure along with another case brought to them by Sarah Bad Heart Bull (Lakota) when her son was fatally stabbed by a white man who was released with no charges. For this case 100 AIM members went to the courthouse in Custer, South Dakota. But as Bad Heart attempted to get past the crowd and into the courthouse police officers pushed her down the steps, using a nightstick on her throat. Seeing an elder mistreated in this manner incited a riot. Officers threw tear gas and the radical members of AIM set fire to the courthouse and the chamber of commerce. Dennis Banks and Russell Means were brought up on riot charges, though they were inside when the incident occurred. Bad heart got 3-5 year sentence and served 5 months. Her son’s murderer however got two-month probation and served no time.

“Let’s make our stand at Wounded Knee, because that place has meaning for us, because so many of our people were massacred there” Gladys Bisonette proclaimed, beginning The Second Battle at Wounded Knee.

South Dakota’s Pine Ridge Reservation had a murder rate 700 times that of Detroit. (Langston)  The newly installed tribal chair Dick Wilson was seen as corrupt because of an action that allowed him to unilaterally sign away a large, mineral-rich tract of reservation land in exchange for being allowed to set up a feudal barony (Anonymous) The existing government of Pine Ridge was disliked by AIM since its laws were promulgated under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. (Koltlowski) The tribal government motioned for an impeachment, however the BIA put Wilson in charge of his own impeachment. (Anynoymous)

Wilson had a police force which was named Guardians of the Oglala Nation (GOONs). (Anonymous) A notably corrupt organization, Half of BIA police moonlighted as GOONs and banned AIM activities. The atmosphere prior to the 71-day siege reflected the commonly committed arsons, beatings, and murders. AIM leaders were backed by traditional Sioux leaders such as Gladys Bissonette. (Kotlowski) Federal forces were used without required presidential proclamation and executive order. Of the 350 occupiers, less than 100 were men. During the occupation of wounded knee, Special Operations group of US marshals were posted on the reservation to support Wilson. (Anonymous) Nearly every AIM member was arrested after wounded knee and 185 Federal indictments were issued.

The siege of Wounded Knee ended on May 7th 1973 when federal officials agreed to conduct a full-scale investigation of the Wilson regime. (Anonymous) “Paul Chaat Smith, an American Indian writer and associate curator at the National Museum of the American Indian, ”when exhausted, hungry rebels signed an agreement that ended the Wounded Knee occupation. There were other actions and protests, but none came close to capturing the imagination of the Indian world or challenging American power.” (New York Times)

As a Result of the Wounded knee demonstration, Violations of the Fort Laramie Treaty were examined and AIM began the International Indian Treaty Council. (Anonymous) However, there were fatal consequences for their resistance. Between 1973-1976, over 350 AIM members suffered serious physical assaults on or near Pine Ridge, 69 of which were fatal. “The FBI declined to investigate the murders and assaults because it was short of manpower” (American Indian Movement siege of Wounded Knee. The last national officer, John Trudell, resigned in 1979 after his entire family was mysteriously murdered on the Duck Valley Reservation in Nevada.

Gladys Bissonette, an Oglala Lakota elder and one of the leaders of the violent turmoil, lost her son, Pedro Bissonette who was the president of the Oglala Sioux civil rights organization when BIA police engaged in a fatal encounter for him in 1973. Gladys’s daughter Jeanette Bissonette was shot dead on the way home from Pedro’s funeral. No indictments ever occurred against the GOONs. (Langston)

Since the swell of the Red power movement in the 70s, Pine Ridge and other reservations have not escaped the plagues of poverty and alcohol, where government neglect remains. (NYT) In the end, Legal battles have bankrupted the movement and the lack of unity in leadership allowed for certain weaknesses to be exploited. (Langston) Today civil rights such as sovereignty, hunting and fishing, and voting are still issues facing Native people today. Standing Rock has been an outstanding example of Indigenous resistance.

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

American Indian Women’s Activism in the 1960s and 1970s Author(s): Donna Hightower Langston Source: Hypatia, Vol. 18, No. 2, Indigenous Women in the Americas (Spring, 2003), pp. 114132 Published by: Wiley on behalf of Hypatia, Inc. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3811016 Accessed: 25-05-2017 18:51 UTC

“PRIMARY SOURCE: American Indian Movement Siege of Wounded Knee: A roadblock on the road to Wounded…” Government, Politics, and Protest: Essential Primary Sources, edited by K. Lee Lerner, et al., Gale, 2006. Biography in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/PC2687587104/BIC1?u=milw10296&xid=51c1513a. Accessed 19 May 2017.

“Alcatraz.” Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition, Mar. 2017, p. 1. EBSCOhost, 0-search.ebscohost.com.libus.csd.mu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=39042914&site=ehost-live.

Kotlowski, Dean J. “Alcatraz, Wounded Knee, and Beyond: The Nixon and Ford Administrations Respond to Native American Protest.” Pacific Historical Review, vol. 72, no. 2, May 2003, p. 201. EBSCOhost, 0-search.ebscoh ost.com.libus.csd.mu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9888060&site=ehost-live.

Anonymous. “American Indian Movement Siege of Wounded Knee.” Government, Politics, and Protest: Essential Primary Sources, edited by K. Lee Lerner, et al., Gale, 2006, pp. 276-278. Biography in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CX2687500112/BIC1?u=milw10296&xid=66604b03. Accessed 18 May 2017.

“On Wounded Knee.” New York Times, 24 Oct. 2012, p. A24(L). Biography in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A306150420/BIC1?u=milw10296&xid=0ff2d4f9. Accessed 18 May 2017.

Importance of Principles

Clare McCullough

The first prime minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, once said “Failure comes only when we forget our ideals and objectives and principles.” The leader of this new democracy knew the importance of keeping to our principles. A principle is a set of standards that determine the actions a person choses. Operating on principles hold you to a higher level of morality and integrity. Principles generally allow for more structure in life and thereby allow for your mind to ground itself and be used in a more efficient and appropriate way. They make up the fundamental basis of democracy, ethics, and all rules governing behavior.

For a morally right principle to become institutionalized as a norm it must become a standard of behavior. Norms are relative to culture, family, country, etc. and are often subject to change. Norms are the actions that countries are excepted to take based on the preferences of a substantial proportion of any population. Principles are an important part of government as well as pertinent to the integrity of our legacy as a human person. Unfortunately, some principles are purely symbolic and are ignored in practice. Principles are essential to uphold justice and provide the foundation of a functional society because if we agree on a set of standards it would be easier to apply the principles fairly and equally. We can assign basic rights to people and protect appropriately.

Moral actions are justified by the principle that the person acted upon. A person needs to accept universal application, or the norm, of whatever basic truth one acts upon. Principles guide order. A logical chain of reasoning is necessary for a principle to create foundations. There are Primary principles that are universal and secondary principles that apply in cases of exception. According to Aquinas, Natural law states that the basic ethical principle is as follows, “Good is to be done and pursued and evil is to be avoided.” If Principles provide a foundation for being a good person then, they are the single most important thing in your life.

 

Tree

When the conditions are right

Love grows like trees do

building itself out of light

And air

And water

Its hands plunging into the dark soil

When it is still only an acorn

In its rayless hole

With no mind to guide it upwards

it reaches for the sun

Then, particles of light

Fall onto the green

Shaky leaves

which

exhale oxygen

But

People forget to tell you that,

As the love grows

it changes

From that smooth sapling

Into a wide,

tree

With roots that seem to reach

The center of the earth

The bark thickens

And the tree’s growth

creates the stretch marks

Criss-crossing its surface

Your tree is no longer smooth

No longer young

But the scars

In the scars you can

See all that eaten light

The Roles in Guam’s Future Political Status

Johnathan Borja

Håfa Adai!

Last week (3/12-3/18), I read an article by Dylan Kioshi where he responded to an article written by Rebekah Garrison. After reading both articles, I thought hard about the questions they both posed. From my understanding, Miss Garrison supports the idea of Guam becoming an independent nation. The other two options for Guam are to become a State or for Guam to get cozy with free association. I will try my bestI’m going to try and do my best to get my thoughts in order.

First off, I’m going to address Miss Garrison’s article and her suggestion that settlers learn about the land they walk on. Miss Garrison brought up Haunani-Kay Trask. This woman is fierce. She is the epitome of what it means to be an indigenous person angry about colonization. Her words are moving, true and everything I would love to be. He words inspire me to fight for the island that, as Miss Garrison mentioned, is constantly written out of American History textbooks. When I tell people at Marquette I’m from Guam, they think we’re located near Barbados or Cuba. They always have a bewildered look on their face. Maybe a year ago, I would have let it slide, but I really shouldn’t. There is no reason why they shouldn’t know Guam. They know Puerto Rico, French Polynesia, Samoa, etc. Guam is a victim in American History and what do we get in a history textbook? Nothing. I recall in my history class the part of the book where Guam should be mentioned. Guam was stated to be a U.S. Territory and that’s all.

Let’s forget the fact that after Pearl Harbor was bombed, the Japanese attacked us on one of our most holy days. You read that right. Holy. We are Catholic, thanks to colonization. Let’s not forget the Chamorro men that lost their lives fighting in hopes that the Americans would show up. Let’s not forget the women that were raped and killed. Let’s not forget the people that were piled into caves and shot. Or the people that were lined up along ditches and shot. Let’s not forget my grandma who told me stories of how her family walked for miles and miles to camps (hey, America, the Japanese did to us what you did to them in the mainland). Let’s not forget my grandma telling me how her aunt shed tears at how skinny my grandma was getting from lack of nutrition and all the walking.

We have a history. A long, arduous, amazing history. But we are not valued for it. Instead, our cultures were pushed aside. Our heritage was deemed second-rate. My blood was labeled as the Other. The U.S. took away our language by banning it from being spoken in schools. The result? I’m not fluent in it. I’m slowly learning and actively trying to do my best to absorb more of my culture. I have no pride in the fact that I was born American. Being American isn’t something to be proud of in my eyes, as if the current situation our nation is in isn’t proof enough. I have pride in the fact that I was born Chamorro. My people—God bless them—they are my strength. They are the reason I’ve traveled thousands of miles to be where I am right now. Truthfully, Marquette is not the ideal college for an island boy. In fact, I’d suggest that anyone from Guam looking for higher education choose somewhere on either coast. Both have much more accepting people as well as Guamanians and Chamorros.

In short, I agree that it is the duty of people not of Chamorro descent to educate themselves about my culture. You’re living on land that Chamorro families may have claims to. We, the natives, have to learn American History and American values like individualism and capitalism. I feel it’s only right that if you stay on Guam you learn about Puntan and Fu’una, Sirena, Inafa’maolek, Respetu, etc.Ms. Garrison wrote, “…I support an independent Guåhan even without the “right” to vote for Guåhan’s self-determination for many reasons, but especially, because I believe none of us, growing up on the continent or Guåhan, have ever received an elementary or high school education that values indigenous histories and possibilities for decolonization.”I could not agree more. This quote encompasses what I wish for Guam. Finally, as a Chamorro, I’d like to thank all the settlers—no—my Guamanian brothers and sisters who are actively vouching for my people and decolonization. I’m not entirely sold on any of the directions Guam could go as of now, but independence sounds pretty darn good to me.

Now, Mr. Kioshi had questions for the indigenous people of Guam. I will now proceed to answer them myself.

What are native Chamorros responsibilities to the land and people?

What are my responsibilities? To me, my responsibilities are to educate my school on the fact that they’re not the only ones in this world. Americans rejoice in their freedom, by oppressing others. People travel to Pacific Islands to partake in the warm climates, the culture and then they return without a second glance at what they experienced. They always look at the surface level of things. Don’t bother asking the man’åmko (elders) about their lives as POWs. No, instead, enjoy food, dancing and a rich culture that has gone through hell to remain on this earth. My responsibility to the land is to make sure people know what’s going on in the first place. It’s to ensure that people not from Guam understand that when they decide to settle on our island and choose to turn a blind eye from the problems we face, that they are also a part of that exact problem.

What are my responsibilities to the people? I honestly have no idea and I don’t know what I’m doing. At my age, kids are still trying to figure themselves out and I am no exception. However, one thing that remains constant since I’ve left Guam is, everything I’ve done and will do has always been done with Guam on my mind. I constantly think, “But if I do this, will it help Grandma? Will it make my ancestors proud? Will it make an easier life for my family?” My responsibility to the people of Guam is to shape myself in my own image in a way that could best serve the Chamorros and Guamanians. Maybe as a lawyer, I can represent the island and challenge everything the U.S. has done. It might be a stupid thing to do, but I’d rather do something stupid than nothing at all. I have the duty of being a catalyst for younger generations to push back against the U.S. and the colonialism that comes with them.

But again, I have no idea what I’m doing and how I’m going to ever bring about change for my island. I can run for governor or I can be an activist, but what will that do? I can be a Speech Language Pathologist and provide my services to everyone on Guam. I could be a teacher and instil a fire in my students so that they will not be apathetic when things go awry for our island. Minorities are always at odds with the world. We can only do so much and it gets so tiring combatting all the injustices like colonization. This past election has revealed a lot about people. It’s allowed people intolerant of others to come forward and criticize or verbally assault those who are different because the President does it too. Sometimes, it makes me weak and I can’t help but feel like there really is no point to anything I do. Which brings me to Mr. Kioshi’s other questions.

“Who are we to each other? What does that mean for each of us in the future of Guam?”

Who are we to each other? If you’re not of native blood, but you call Guam home, then you’re my brother or sister. Che’lu. That’s what you are. You look out for me, my island, my people and I’ll make sure that you’re well taken care of. Guamanian or Chamorro, you’ve decided to settle on my island and if you’ve chosen to learn my culture and learn more about who I am, then you are an ally. I’m not some Chamorro that boasts pure-blood, because no one really is. Rather, I’m a Chamorro that does what the U.S. is failing to do: accept people. The world may be against us, but as long as there are people of all walks of life that stand together, anything can be done.

What does this mean for the future of Guam? It’s my ancestors land and now you have a part of it. For the future of Guam, I hope it means that people will stop settling in complacency. I hope people will be aggressive and intent on letting the U.S. know that we are tired of being labeled as unimportant. We’ve lost just as much, if not more than we have gained from being under American colonial rule. You gave us an American education, so maybe it’s time we introduce the Americans to the Chamorro lesson plan of respetu (respect). Just respect the land, the people, the culture and everything. Having no culture does not give one permission to buff out a culture that has already been established. I’m tired of feeling like I have no control over what happens on my island and if any non-native people of Guam are willing to help me, then I think we can move forward with a new political status.

We have been historically underestimated and constantly told that we’re not much and that island life is where it’s at. The Guam Congress can be used as an example. People thought we had power with the Guam Congress, but really it was to satiate the desire for our people to govern ourselves. The Guam Congress had no power. It was a joke. It was the U.S. saying, “Hey, we don’t think you need rights right now, so let’s give you this fake body to make it seem like you could govern yourselves. But really we’ll continue to place naval governors as your governors, because you don’t understand anything that’s outside of your little island and your coconut heads cannot comprehend it.” I used to always pray to God for patience and strength, but now that I no longer have a religious affiliation (blasphemy, I know Guam, but not everyone enjoys Catholicism), I rely on myself for those two things. However, I think it’s about damn time I don’t ask for patience, because we’ve waited for over a hundred years to be free from colonization and I’ll be damned if I don’t see Guam free of the U.S. before I die.

So what does this mean for us? For my family, for their families and for anyone that calls Guam home, I hope it means we can work in tandem to see to a culturally enriched Guam. My island isn’t for those who would disrespect it and the culture. I hope it means any non-natives will gladly saddle up their carabaos (water buffalo) with me and we’ll ride into a better Guam.

This article was originally published at The Odyssey Online.

Healing Rivers

Carolyn Lewis

The Milwaukee River Basin, 900 square miles, is made up of the Menomonee, Kinnickinnic, and, of course, the Milwaukee River that runs through the city and into Lake Michigan. The urban-environment and agricultural influence on these rivers prompts the Milwaukee Riverkeeper to give the Basin a “grade” of a C- (2015 Milwaukee River Basin Report Card). The Midwest is known for its beauty and nature, but as of right now our river areas and their wildlife are not where they should be. Recent tests done by United States Geological Survey (USGS) states that “viruses from cattle occurred in 14 percent of the samples collected” from the Milwaukee River and “Human viruses were present in 16 percent of the total number of water samples” taken from their 8-river study. The levels of bacteria, phosphorus, and conductivity in just the Milwaukee River alone is alarming, but reversible with attention and action.

The River Basin contains habitats for endangered and threatened plants and animal species who we do not want to lose from our ecosystem. The first step to protecting and nurturing the biodiversity of our freshwater rivers is awareness. Reconsidering threatening action such as land development, concrete river enclosure, and dams is imperative when we live so close to our rivers. Action is usually haste when it comes to our rivers and it is time the people have more of an idea of what is being done. Projects such as Watermarks by artist Mary Miss, are being implemented to raise conscientiousness and interaction between citizens and their water that surrounds them. This “Living Laboratory” is trying to shine light on the City of Milwaukee’s environmental challenges by manifesting water ‘map pins’ as pole markers that people can interact with an app. Giving information to the people is a step in the right direction for effort towards healthier aquatic and terrestrial habitat. A way that you can help is purchasing and using a personal Rain Barrel. Rain Barrels help ease flooding during storms and stop excess water in the sewer system from getting into our freshwaters. Our freshwater rivers provide beauty, recreation and habitat, it is time to protect them.

Work Cited

USGS. “Human, Cattle Viruses Detected in Some Great Lakes Tributaries.” Human, Cattle Viruses Detected in Some Great Lakes Tributaries. N.p., 2 Mar. 2017.

Meatless Mondays

Clare McCullough

If you’re a vegetarian or a vegan in America, it’s a little more challenging to find something tasty and filling to eat. Which of course makes sense; animal products are a huge part of our lives in American culture. Americans eat on average 5.3 pounds of meat a day. (Black)

America loves our meat, but have you ever wondered where that meat came from? I have and in learning about the issue I came face to face with a lot of realities that were hard for me to accept.  One of those realities was how much harm our meat-eating habits were doing world-wide. And, so I propose a grass-roots campaign to spread awareness of the environmental impact of animal agriculture and help curb the rising obesity epidemic. By using targeted reduction of even just one day, our rational consumption changes the narrative for both the health of our bodies and the environment. We need to take into account the full costs of our individual actions on a massive scale.

Animal Agriculture is a huge contributor to climate change, According to WorldWatch, “livestock and their byproducts account for at least 32,000 million tons of CO2 per year, or 51% of all worldwide greenhouse gas emission.” Which is more than all of the transportation sector combined. Yep, that’s the cars, trucks, boats, and planes all put together. We’ve been focusing on wrong areas, instead of transportation, we need to turn our attention to our diets.

Animal agriculture is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gasses. There are a lot of people on the earth, and to support all of them and still preserve our environment, we need to cut back on energy exhaustive practices- think about how much energy goes into making a burger- grow the cow’s food, feed and hydrate the cow, deal with its waste, give it antibiotics, ship the fat cows, grind the meat, wash, cut, clean, package, ship, and cook. The long processes that go into making that hamburger emit a lot of CO2 and all the while these cows on the farms are emitting upwards to a 150 billion gallons of methane globally per day. (IBT) And if we were to reduce methane, we would see results of a more relieved climate almost immediately (UN)

Going meatless on Mondays would also help decrease obesity. More than 30% of adults in Wisconsin are obese and the effects of obesity are very serious; it is related to heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.(CDC) These diseases are preventable, and by doing whatever we can to help, and utilizing Marquette’s deep commitment to the well-being of the whole human family, we can make a difference by cutting out meat for one day a week. Though many people have the conception that vegetarianism is unhealthy, that is clearly untrue.

According to AND, vegetarians are at lower risk for developing: Heart disease, Colorectal, ovarian, and breast cancers, Diabetes, Obesity, and Hypertension (high blood pressure).  Eating a healthy vegetarian diet is typically higher in fiber and lower in fat content. By promoting a vegetarian lifestyle we promote a healthy and sustainable lifestyle. But obesity isn’t the only thing that Meatless Mondays would help curb.

the environmental impact of animal agriculture. We need to take care of this earth, since it’s the only one that we have. It is certain that its destruction, would mean our destruction.

And, though I know that Climate change is a bit of a political point, and there are people who deny it, I would still like to bring up facts that often come up in the scientific community about it. Global warming is caused by heat getting trapped in the atmosphere and in effect, disrupting weather patterns and increasing the overall temperature of the earth. The safe level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere at its maximum, is 350 parts per million. In 2014, we passed 400. As a result, the sea level is rising due to the ice sheets of Greenland and the Antarctic melting. Oceans are acidifying. “Climate change will destroy, damage, or permanently change every single ecosystem” (Sierra Club)

All of the effects that scientists had warned us about are starting to become a reality, and according to NASA, the result of climate change on the Midwest will entail, “Extreme heat, heavy downpours, and flooding will affect infrastructure, health, agriculture, forestry, transportation, air and water quality, and more. Climate change will also exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes.” One of the ways we can combat Climate change is to start Meatless Mondays since climate change will affect all of us and it’s a small price to pay to prevent the destruction of the planet.

But even if you don’t believe in Climate change, there are still reasons to cut back on meat. According to FAO, livestock or livestock feed occupies 1/3 of the earth’s ice-free land. And, it has so far, contributed to 91% of the deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest, one of the most ecologically diverse places on the planet. This is just one of the many immediate impacts of animal agriculture.

Animal agriculture is the leading cause of species extinction, because deforestation and converting the land to grow feed and for animal grazing. Natural predators in the regions where the land is converted are often killed since they are a perceived threat to livestock profits. According to the center for biological diversity, 30-50 percent of all species could be heading toward extinction by 2050. This loss of biodiversity has been unprecedented since the last mass extinction: The end of the dinosaurs.

The pervasive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides that are used for growing feed contribute to water pollution and contribute to ocean dead zones. The overexploitation of commercial fishing which has depleted 75% of the world’s fisheries will lead us to, according to national geographic, fishless oceans by 2048. I will be 51 years old, and at that time, if all goes well, my kids will be going to college, just like I am right now. But they might not live in a world like I do. Their world, and mine will be vastly different. It is my wish that, when I am old, I will not have to tell them stories of how the world used to be, but show them how magnificent the natural world is, how I spent my summers camping, fishing, and hiking in the seemingly endless parks with my family. And according to Wannaveg, if just one person participated in meatless Mondays for a year, that person would reduce their meat consumption from 250 pounds to 215 pounds, which is a big difference when you factor in the reduction of over 400 pounds of manure, and the 84,000 gallons of water, 245 pounds of grain, 7,700 sq feet of rainforest, and 15.5 gallons of gas saved, and of course, 1 animal’s life.

It is our responsibility, As citizens of this world to ensure that the spill over of our climate destruction doesn’t only affect other countries but also doesn’t follow us into the future.

Black, Jane. “Oh, Meatless Mondays; the Movement has Legs, but Will it be Able to Get Past the Industry’s Talking Points?” The Washington Post, May 19, 2010, ProQuest Central, https://0-search.proquest.com.libus.csd.mu.edu/docview/304154117?accountid=100.

http://www.ibtimes.com/cow-farts-have-larger-greenhouse-gas-impact-previously-thought-methane-pushes-climate-change-1487502

A Short Critique on the American Democracy

Clare McCullough

Bottle rockets and the

Fourth of July

Who knew freedom came in a pack

Of hamburger buns

A celebration of this great nation

Independence day with nearly 25%

Of the world’s prison population

A history of slavery and terrorism

The mandatory nonvoter forever a nonissue

ignored abused and intimidated; American citizens

For fear that their preaching of acceptance

and tolerance just might start working

Predation is a part of exploitation

We’re American, we’re free but

hypocrisy is in the make of our 1770s jeans

Its not amazing that our empathy isn’t working

Don’t listen to Ron Reagan or Bill Clinton;

poor people are not to blame

it’s the piles of money and decades of shame

Law and order are easy when money has more

Value than Eric Garner’s ability to breathe

Lee, Michelle Ye Hee. “Does the United States Really Have 5 Percent of the World’s Population and One Quarter of the World’s Prisoners?” The Washington Post. WP Company, 30 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Mar. 2017.

Hembra Mujer Niña

Yazmin Gomez

 

Growing up I never really questioned my gender or my gender expectations. I was not a “girly girl” but I was not a “tomboy” either. I was assigned girl at birth and I have always identified as such. However, in recent years have come to the realization that gender is not as clear as girl and boy despite society’s insistence that it is. I have also noticed the impact my culture and the women around me have had on my views on gender. I have gotten most, if not all, of my ideas regarding gender from my family and culture.

As a young Latina, I was surrounded by powerful women who helped shape my own view of women. My grandmothers and aunts have always been the ones in charge of the family. They are the go-to people for advice and help for major decisions; Any and all issues went through them first. Seeing this defiance of traditional gender roles embedded in me a reminder to boldly not take anything from anyone.

Yet they spent their days cleaning, cooking, and tending to the house. While these roles are essential to the maintenance of a quality home, they are not merely for women. At times this confused me as I often felt I could only be assertive within my household. What I also got from them was varying forms of gender expression and performance.

Clothing is perhaps the easiest and most prevalent way of performing gender. Either you wear girl clothes or boy clothes. I always wore “girl” clothes as I was dressed by parents but I saw very different forms of femininity and female expression in my youth. The singer Selena had died a couple of years before my birth but I grew up listening to her music. Apart from her music she is often known for her appearance. This beautiful, young, talented women was the epitome of Latin beauty in the 90’s. Yet at the same time I saw different looking women around me. My mother was quite young when I was born and she grew up expressing herself as a typical “chola”. Cholas, a staple of the 90s latinx world, were a beautiful blend of masculine gangster culture and classic Mexican femininity. She often dressed in baggy, masculine clothes and wore dramatic makeup.

With both these women there is an emphasis on makeup and dress. This also makes me realize that there are varying forms of femininity and all are equally valid. While gender is a social construct, it is, to many, an essential part of their identity. With my piece, I am attempting to display just some of the many types of women throughout Latina (specifically Mexican) culture. From famous artists Frida Kahlo and Selena to my own grandmother and aunts, this piece includes the iconic images of femininity that I grew up with. It also includes cultural symbols such as sugar skulls and the Virgin Mary. The Virgin Mary specifically evokes the role religion has on my culture’s view of gender. In Catholicism, the women of the bible are often seen as examples to follow. As a young girl, I would go to Virgin Mary’s basilica in Mexico and be reminded that this pious, devote women was to be emulated.

My culture is something I cannot shake, it is an inherent part of my identity, nor is it something I wish to change. Throughout my lifetime I have seen varying depictions of womanhood. Though confusing at times, I have now come to the realization that this means I can truly be whomever I wish to be.

Reinventing the ‘F’ Word: Feminism

[youtube=://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ma2n2O3p_k4&w=854&h=480]

AHHHHHH!!!!!!!!!!

When it comes to shedding light on equality and corruption in the art world, the women in the gorilla masks dominate and inspire.

With their unique approach to protest and activism, they’ve drawn attention to many issues in the current art world. Combining statistics, humor and art, they’ve created exhibits, prints and public pieces for us to see and reflect upon. The Guerrilla Girls freely showed all the ways sexism, racism and corruption take place within in the modern art world, on February 22nd, they spoke at the Milwaukee Institution of Art and Design (MIAD).

The women are anonymous but take on the names of famous female artists. Many of these artists which I found myself not familiar with. This drove home the truth of their word that the female gender is underrepresented in art museums and history. The issues that were addressed stemmed from statistics the Guerrilla Girls have followed for decades when they started in 1985 New York. Since then they have become an international phenomenon that people cannot, and don’t want to, ignore.

The Guerrilla Girls have given attention to the entertainment industry. This attention is given mostly through billboards in Hollywood about lack of opportunity and recognition in the Academy Awards. The Oscars that premiered this Spring 2017 proved them to be expanding their diversity. But awards shows are just the product of an industry that has a history dominated by white males. To witness and begin to change the under representation, we must begin with the writers, producers and financiers of the movie/art industry that create the opportunity. In awards shows, the movies are already made, the cast is already hired and the crew has already done their work. We must begin with the script writers and studios executives who create our films. The Guerrilla Girls talked about how the art industry is, and has been, all about money and power. It is time to confront the real issues that are dominating our creative fields. This world we find ourselves in needs a wake up call and the Guerrilla Girls give it to us, with powerful Guerrilla tactics.

Miad Event and the Milwaukee Art Museum:

A Collection of Three Poems

Chris Kresser

Atone
The game show has begun
Stop talking when you hear the bell ring
You may respond if you’ve been called
Now let them all sing

We are here to find a leader
The one who will gladly take up the cup
Not for greed, power, or lust
But for god, guns, and country

Argot spoken from golden tongues
Ensemble suits and pockets weighted
The accusatory finger pointed at the congregation
But you will find no members of the cloth here

You say you know us
You say you know where we have been
“I am you”
But I cannot see what you claim

I see hefty shoulders and chins held to the sky
I see men with opulent houses
I see women with eyes burning and wide
Absent is the eagle’s seal

Bearing no branch of olives
No strife, nor character to claim
“The fault lies in you”
Says the appointed few

But to the land you love to castigate
Your contributions show only deposits
While the starved feeble parish
On the roads you paved with promises

Where will you go, when your kin ask you to atone?

Wise Words from the 26th
Red pen marks that circle around text
Covered across the white pressed surface
Looking on with doubt
I must remind myself “It is not the critic who counts”

To mark a page is painless
To shout at the stage is seamless
To call every play is effortless
To mock the one who tries is cowardice

Without sounding preachy
During my life I have come to know
When you’re the one in the arena
It is not they who make the mark

The only one that can critique
And second guess your every step
The only one that can truly fulfill you
Is the one who continues on

Till the very last breath

The Algorithm
Attached at the hip. Spines of rigid cogs and screws
An extension of my fingers. Printed black text
Updated constantly with the news.

ANDERSON COOPER SECRETLY A MORMON
ROBERT DE NIRO DEAD IN THREE DAYS
BOMB WENT OFF IN SYRIA TODAY

The cacophonies rip at my back bones
But hey, at least now I fit the mold
Information bought not sold

I feel the dashes and dots in my brains
I can hear it coursing through my veins
All of it noise and echo chambers

Did you know this? Did you know that?
This is cool! This is bad! Error ERROR!
System hack. Upload. Reboot. Crash.